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Category: Publications (Page 1 of 13)

Predominantly pro-inflammatory phenotype with mixed M1/M2 polarization of peripheral blood classical monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages among patients with excessive ethanol intake

María Fernández-Regueras, Cristina Carbonell, Daniel Salete-Granado, Juan-Luis García, Marcos Gragera, María-Ángeles Pérez-Nieto, Francisco-Javier Morán-Plata, Andrea Mayado, Jorge-Luis Torres, Luis-Antonio Corchete, Ricardo Usategui-Martín, Elena Bueno-Martínez, Maura Rojas-Pirela, Guadalupe Sabio, Rogelio González-Sarmiento, Alberto Orfao, Francisco-Javier Laso, Julia Almeida & Miguel Marcos.

Excessive alcohol consumption impairs the immune system, induces oxidative stress, and triggers the activation of peripheral blood (PB) monocytes, thereby contributing to alcoholic liver disease (ALD).

miRNA of isolated CD14+ blood monocytes from excessive alcohol drinkers.

We analyzed the M1/M2 phenotypes of circulating classical monocytes and macrophage-derived monocytes (MDMs) in excessive alcohol drinkers (EADs). PB samples from 20 EADs and 22 healthy controls were collected for isolation of CD14+ monocytes and short-term culture with LPS/IFNγ, IL4/IL13, or without stimulation. These conditions were also used to polarize MDMs into M1, M2, or M0 phenotypes. Cytokine production was assessed in the blood and culture supernatants. M1/M2-related markers were analyzed using mRNA expression and surface marker detection. Additionally, the miRNA profile of CD14+ monocytes was analyzed. PB samples from EADs exhibited increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Following short-term culture, unstimulated blood samples from EADs showed higher levels of soluble TNF-α and IL-8, whereas monocytes expressed increased levels of surface TNF-α and elevated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase. MDMs from EADs showed higher levels of TNF-α and CD206 surface markers and increased IL-10 production. LPS/IFNγ induced higher mRNA expression of Nrf2 only in the controls. miRNA analysis revealed a distinctive miRNA profile that is potentially associated with liver carcinogenesis and ALD through inflammation and oxidative stress.

This study confirms the predominantly pro-inflammatory profile of PB monocytes among EADs and suggests immune exhaustion features in MDMs.

Hypothalamic JNK1-hepatic fatty acid synthase axis mediates a metabolic rewiring that prevents hepatic steatosis in male mice treated with olanzapine via intraperitoneal: Additional effects of PTP1B inhibition

Vitor Ferreira, Cintia Folgueira, María García-Altares, Maria Guillén, Mónica Ruíz-Rosario, Giada DiNunzio, Irma Garcia-Martinez, Rosa Alen, Christoph Bookmeyer, John G. Jones, Juan C. Cigudosa, Pilar López-Larrubia, Xavier Correig-Blanchar, Roger J. Davis, Guadalupe Sabio, Patricia Rada & Ángela M. Valverde.

Olanzapine (OLA), a widely used second-generation antipsychotic (SGA), causes weight gain and metabolic alterations when administered orally to patients. Recently, we demonstrated that, contrarily to the oral treatment which induces weight gain, OLA administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) in male mice resulted in body weight loss. This protection was due to an increase in energy expenditure (EE) through a mechanism involving the modulation of hypothalamic AMPK activation by higher OLA levels reaching this brain region compared to those of the oral treatment. Since clinical studies have shown hepatic steatosis upon chronic treatment with OLA, herein we further investigated the role of the hypothalamus-liver interactome upon OLA administration in wild-type (WT) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B knockout (PTP1B-KO) mice, a preclinical model protected against metabolic syndrome. WT and PTP1B-KO male mice were fed an OLA-supplemented diet or treated via i.p.

Olanzapine iniection increases hypothalamic JNK phosphorylation
Olanzapine iniection increases hypothalamic JNK phosphorylation (Imagen: Cintia Folgueira).

Mechanistically, we found that OLA i.p. treatment induces mild oxidative stress and inflammation in the hypothalamus in a JNK1-independent and dependent manner, respectively, without features of cell dead. Hypothalamic JNK activation up-regulated lipogenic gene expression in the liver though the vagus nerve. This effect concurred with an unexpected metabolic rewiring in the liver in which ATP depletion resulted in increased AMPK/ACC phosphorylation. This starvation-like signature prevented steatosis. By contrast, intrahepatic lipid accumulation was observed in WT mice treated orally with OLA; this effect being absent in PTP1B-KO mice. We also demonstrated an additional benefit of PTP1B inhibition against hypothalamic JNK activation, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by chronic OLA i.p. treatment, thereby preventing hepatic lipogenesis.

The protection conferred by PTP1B deficiency against hepatic steatosis in the oral OLA treatment or against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the i.p. treatment strongly suggests that targeting PTP1B might be also a therapeutic strategy to prevent metabolic comorbidities in patients under OLA treatment in a personalized manner.

Hepatic stellate cell activation markers are regulated by the vagus nerve in systemic inflammation

Osman Ahmed, April S. Caravaca, María Crespo, Wanmin Dai, Ting Liu, Qi Guo , Magdalena Leiva, Guadalupe Sabio, Vladimir S. Shavva, Stephen G. Malin & Peder S. Olofsson.

The liver is an important immunological organ and liver inflammation is part of the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a condition that may promote cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure, and cardiovascular disease. Despite dense innervation of the liver parenchyma, little is known about neural regulation of liver function in inflammation. Here, we study vagus nerve control of the liver response to acute inflammation.

Detection by FACS of activated hepatic stellate cells (Image: María Crespo).

Methods: Male C57BL/6 J mice were subjected to either sham surgery, surgical vagotomy, or electrical vagus nerve stimulation followed by intraperitoneal injection of the TLR2 agonist zymosan. Animals were euthanized and tissues collected 12 h after injection. Samples were analyzed by qPCR, RNAseq, flow cytometry, or ELISA.

Results: Hepatic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory mediators Ccl2, Il-1β, and Tnf-α were significantly higher in vagotomized mice compared with mice subjected to sham surgery. Differences in liver Ccl2 levels between treatment groups were largely reflected in the plasma chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) concentration. In line with this, we observed a higher number of macrophages in the livers of vagotomized mice compared with sham as measured by flow cytometry. In mice subjected to electrical vagus nerve stimulation, hepatic mRNA levels of Ccl2, Il1β, and Tnf-α, and plasma CCL2 levels, were significantly lower compared with sham. Interestingly, RNAseq revealed that a key activation marker for hepatic stellate cells (HSC), Pnpla3, was the most significantly differentially expressed gene between vagotomized and sham mice. Of note, several HSC-activation associated transcripts were higher in vagotomized mice, suggesting that signals in the vagus nerve contribute to HSC activation. In support of this, we observed significantly higher number of activated HSCs in vagotomized mice as compared with sham as measured by flow cytometry.

Conclusions: Signals in the cervical vagus nerve controlled hepatic inflammation and markers of HSC activation in zymosan-induced peritonitis.

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