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Tag: diabetes (Page 1 of 6)

Brain JNK and metabolic disease

Rubén Nogueiras & Guadalupe Sabio.

Obesity, which has long since reached epidemic proportions worldwide, is associated with long-term stress to a variety of organs and results in diseases including type 2 diabetes. In the brain, overnutrition induces hypothalamic stress associated with the activation of several signalling pathways, together with central insulin and leptin resistance. This central action of nutrient overload appears very rapidly, suggesting that nutrition-induced hypothalamic stress is a major upstream initiator of obesity and associated diseases. The cellular response to nutrient overload includes the activation of the stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3, which are widely expressed in the brain.

Opposing roles of JNK1 and JNK3 in the hypothalamus.

Here, we review recent findings on the regulation and effects of these kinases, with particular focus on the hypothalamus, a key brain region in the control of energy and glucose homeostasis. JNK1 blocks the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, reducing energy expenditure and promoting obesity. Recently, opposing roles have been identified for JNK1 and JNK3 in hypothalamic agouti gene-related protein (AgRP) neurons: while JNK1 activation in AgRP neurons induces feeding and weight gain and impairs insulin and leptin signalling, JNK3 (also known as MAPK10) deletion in the same neuronal population produces very similar effects. The opposing roles of these kinases, and the unknown role of hypothalamic JNK2, reflect the complexity of JNK biology.

Future studies should address the specific function of each kinase, not only in different neuronal subsets, but also in non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system. Decoding the puzzle of brain stress kinases will help to define the central stimuli and mechanisms implicated in the control of energy balance.

Ivana Nikolić galardonada con dos proyectos de la Sociedad Europea de la Diabetes

Nuestra compañera de laboratorio Ivana Nikolić, ha sido galardonada con dos proyectos de la Sociedad Europea de la Diabetes (EFSD) para estudiar el papel de las células T en el desarrollo de las enfermedades asociadas a la obesidad: el “EFSD/Lilly Young Investigator Award” y el “EFSD Rising Star Fellowship”. El Programa EFSD/Lilly Young Investigator Research Award Programme consta de una beca de 50.000 euros, mientras que en el caso del EFSD Rising Star Fellowship Programme, la financiación será de 30.000 euros.

La Dra. Nikolić recibió el Premio EFSD / Lilly Young Investigator y la Beca EFSD Rising Star durante el “EFSD Rising Star Symposium” patrocinado por Novo Nordisk en el prestigioso congreso de la Asociación Europea de la Diabetes que se celebra en Barcelona.


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